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Start of the Tudor Age

1485

Information

On the 22nd of August 1485, Henry Tudor beat King Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field. This was the last battle of the War of the Roses, and brought to an end Plantagenet rule of England. Henry Tudor became Henry VII, the first Tudor monarch. Richard III's body was recently found in a car park in Leicester.





Lolham Manor

1485

Information

Lolham Manor or Hall is a grade II listed building with Tudor features. Dated to the early years of the Tudor period, it contains a fireplace from the time and also wooden panelling. The manor was long associated with the Claypoles of Northborough Manor, especially Adam Claypole. He was living in Lolham Hall in 1622 when he gifted Northborough Manor to his son John Claypole. The hall is also associated with the Clitheroes/Clitherows and there is a reference to Christopher Clitheroe's Estate at Lolham in 1693 in the Fitzwilliam papers in Northamptonshire Archives. There is also a reference to a mortgage for Leonard Gale of the Manor of Lolham. Leonard Gale was father-in-law to James Clitheroe the second. Lolham Manor is a private property and cannot be viewed by the public. The supporting picture is an example of Tudor panelling only. References: London Metropolitan Archives ACC/1360 http://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/details/r/b292a2ca-9c28-4b37-8265-cf3875816561





The ‘New Building’

1496-1509

Information

The Presbytery roof was renewed and an extensive building programme undertaken at the east end of the Cathedral creating the 'New Building'. It is an excellent example of late Perpendicular work with fine fan vaulting designed by John Wastell, who went on to work on Kings College Chapel in Cambridge. The building was commissioned by the penultimate abbot, Robert Kirkton, who funded some of his works by corrupt means, demolishing local properties and confiscating common land.





Resources

Milton Manor Purchased

1502

Information

Milton Manor, situated to the West of Peterborough, has existed since at least 1381. The manor has long been associated with the Fitzwilliam family, but they did not create it. William Fitzwilliam purchased the manors of Milton and Marholm from Robert Wyttilbury/Whittlebury in 1502. He also bought Longthorpe Tower in the same year. In 1575 all of the manors belonging to the Fitzwilliams were valued. Milton Manor, now the main residence, was only valued at £15, but Marholm Manor was valued at £32 and 5 shillings.





Cardinal Wolsey Visits at Easter

1530

Information

Cardinal Thomas Wolsey was an important figure in the life and politics of Henry VIII. A well-educated man, he became an advisor to Henry. He is possibly best known for failing to annul Henry's marriage to Katherine of Aragon. Henry wished for more children and wanted marry Anne Boleyn, but divorce wasn't an option. Wolsey tried to get the marriage annulled by the Pope, but this was unsuccessful. Henry was angry that he couldn't end his marriage and Wolsey was in trouble. His failure to convince the Pope was seen as an act of treason and he was called to London to face Henry. But Wolsey's health had been deteriorating and he never made it back to London. He did, however, make it to Peterborough. Peterborough Abbey hosted Wolsey's visit at Easter in 1530. He took part in many ceremonial duties including observing Maundy Thursday. As tradition dictates, he washed the feet of 59 poor men (the same number of men as his age), this was carried out in the Lady Chapel, which no longer exists. He also handed out gifts to the men. They received '12 pence, three ells of canvas to make them shirts, a pair of new shoes, a cast of bread, three red herrings and three white herrings and the odd person had two shillings.' (1) Wolsey travelled on from Peterborough to the Fitzwilliams at Milton for a few days. His health gradually faded until he died in Leicester Cathedral on 29th November 1530. One of his many legacies was the building of Hampton Court Palace, which was taken by Henry VIII after Wolsey fell out of favour. His visit was also remembered in an iconic LNER poster advertising Peterborough, designed by Fred Taylor. A copy is on display on the top floor of Peterborough Museum.
Reference
(1) W. T. Mellors, The Last Days of Peterborough Monastery, Northamptonshire Record Society, 1950, p xviii





Resources

Neville Place and the Ormes

1536

Information

In 1536 a Tudor house called Neville Place was built by Sir Humphrey Orme, who was a courtier of Henry VIII. The house was built on the site of current museum building. The Ormes were important in Peterborough for over 250 years. They were Members of Parliament, Magistrates and also Feoffees. They were royalist during the English Civil War and were involved in the building of the Guildhall after the Restoration.





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Katharine of Aragon

1536

Information

Katharine of Aragon, Spanish princess, first wife and queen of Henry VIII, is buried in the monastic church. Katharine died at Kimbolton, where she was living after her marriage to Henry had been annulled, on 7 January 1536, most likely of cancer. She was ordered to be buried at Peterborough Abbey as the nearest great religious house that befitted her status, whilst not giving her a burial in London where she might have been politically embarrassing. Her funeral was held on 29 January 1536. The heart of the funeral cortege included a coffin wagon covered with black velvet, as were the six horses pulling it; Heralds and fifty servants in black carrying torches; four banners in crimson taffeta and four golden standards. At the door of the abbey church the body was received by four bishops and six abbots and placed under a canopy lit by a thousand candles. Today Katharine is remembered annually by a commemorative service and series of events at the Cathedral and elsewhere in the city around the anniversary of her burial, 29 January. Many visitors place pomegranates – her heraldic symbol – on her tomb.





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Dissolution of the Monastery

1539

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The great abbey of Peterborough was closed and its lands and properties confiscated by the king, Henry VIII. Orders had come the previous year to get rid of any relics, and the Abbey’s collection was destroyed. In the spring of 1539, Henry called a Parliament, and legislation was passed to enable all monastic property to be conferred on the crown: all the remaining monasteries were to go. Whilst some monasteries offered resistance, and the monks were dealt with harshly, Abbot John Chambers surrendered the Abbey seal with no resistance when Henry’s commissioners arrived on 29 November 1539. Chambers received an annual pension of £266, 13s 4d. Many monastic buildings were pulled down, with lead from the roofs melted down into lead ‘sows’ for sale.





Creation of a Cathedral – and a School

1541

Information

To increase his control over the church in this area Henry VIII created a new bishop (the former abbot John Chambers) and Peterborough Abbey church became a Cathedral by letters patent. The foundation charter of the Cathedral, formally established on 4 September 1541, constituted a chapter of a dean (appointed by the crown) and six canons. In addition the charter established six minor canons, a deacon, sub-deacon, eight singing men, and eight choristers, two schoolmasters serving 20 scholars and six almsmen. Henry also created a grammar school in the precincts, the foundation of the King’s School.





St. John’s Church Swaps a Bell with Leice...

1541

Information

In 1541 the great bells of St. John's church and Leicester Abbey were swapped over. It is not clear why the bells were exchanged, but the cost of the swap is detailed in the church records. Robert Newcome received payment for weighing the bells and identifying that one was larger. A man from 'Wyttlyllsey' (Whittlesey) was paid 20p for supplying 'a gable to tacke down the olde bell and hang up the new'. But they were only bit parts in the story. The bells had to be swapped over, so it was decided that the bell from Peterborough would be driven to Leicester, where they would collect the other bell and return with it. This was 1541 though! Four men including John Gedney and Robarte Allyn set off with 10 horses pulling a cart with the bell on top. They rested for the first night in Uppingham, fixed the cart and continued to Leicester. They stayed in Leicester for several days before making the journey back, stopping again in Uppingham. In total they took eight days for their journey, fixing the cart several times. All of the costs of food and drink were paid for, as well as their accommodation. Not to mention payment for their time. John Gedney was paid 5 shillings for himself and the hire of four horses. Roberte Allen was paid 14 shillings 'for 6 horsys and 2 men for 8 days'.
References
W. T. Mellows (ed.) Peterborough Local Administration Churchwarden's Accounts 1467-1573 with Supplementary Documents 1107-1488, Northamptonshire Record Society, 1939 p145





Waldram Hall Recorded on a Map

1543

Information

Situated on a turn in the River Welland to the east of Peakirk and Northborough, Waldrum or Waldram Hall has long disappeared. It was once an important hall and was owned by William Cecil and the Fitwilliams. There is believed to have been a building on the site since the twelfth century. There are several references to the hall over the centuries, in parish records and poll books. It is also located on a map of 1543 which is stored in the National Archives. The hall's position on the Welland was at a good crossing point. A ferry service was provided by the hall across the river and up to Crowland too. This would have been the only crossing point in this vicinity on the Welland before the bridge was built in Deeping St. James. The route was said to have been used by pilgrims heading to Walsingham as this document from Northamptonshire Archives states: 'the ferme of Waldranhall above mencioned is an Inne somtime greatly frequented by pilgrymes passing to Walsingham.' (1) The hall was still in use in the first half of the Twentieth Century, when pictures and personal accounts exist. By this time the hall was an unprepossessing stone house, regarded as no more than a farm house. After the building of two bridges in the Deepings in the Seventeenth and Nineteenth Centuries, the ferry at Waldram Hall fell out of use and the building was no longer a decent source of income. The construction of the railway loop line to Lincoln effectively cut off the building rendering it useless.
References
  1. Northamptonshire Records Office F (M) Charter/2287
D. Price, River Welland, Amberley Publishing, 2012





People Living in Tudor Peterborough

1544-1546

Information

Thanks to the Churchwardens Accounts of St John's Church in Peterborough, we know some of the people living in the city in Tudor times. The church recorded how much rent was paid on property and who paid it. Most of the names are of men, but there are some women. Some people are only recorded by their surname. A few of the names seem rather odd to modern eyes because they are spelt very differently to today, so alternatives are given. The four districts recorded relate to streets or areas that you might not recognise today, so their modern equivalent is provided. Dogsthorpe was included as a district, but has been missed off this list. Prestgatt (Priestgate) Fraunces (John Francis), Edward Bellamy, Elexaunder Mylner (Alexander Milner), Joanne Fletcher, Robart Pynnyng (Robert Pinning), Agnys Coper (Agnes Cooper), Sawnder (Alexander?) the labourer Markettsted (Cathedral Square) William Haw, George Spenser, Thomas Whyght (White), [Mistress Baley deleted], Sir William Bell, Allys Padman (Alice Padman) Hygatt (Bridge Street) Bygges Wyffe (Bigge's wife), John Houndysley (John Houndesley), John Pattenson Westgatt (Westgate) Wylkynson (Wilkinson), Joanne Cosson, William Farssett (possibly Farcet) Bowngatt (Boongate) John Monesty, The Myller (Miller)  
Reference
W. T. Mellows (ed.), Peterborough Local Administration Chruchwarden's Accounts 1467-1573 with Supplementary Documents 1107-1488, Northamptonshire Record Society, 1939





Repairs to the Dead Man’s Door

1548

Information

The cemetery for Peterborough Cathedral is to the north of the building. Thousands of people were buried there, from monks to grave diggers. In the past, any people who had their funeral in the cathedral exited the building via the north door, which gave direct access to the graveyard. This is the last door that their body would pass through, so it is known as dead man's door. In 1548/9 the lock of the door needed repairing, which is not surprising given how old the door is. Two pence was paid for 'mending the loke [lock] of the dedmans dore [door]',(1) which appears a bargain in modern terms. No records exist to say if the lock was needed to keep the living or the dead out of the cathedral!
Reference
(1) W. T. Mellows, The Last Days of Peterborough Monastery, Northamptonshire Record Society, 1950, p107





Resources

Thorney Monastery Granted to the Earl of Bedford

1550

Information

The site of the medieval Benedictine monastery of Thorney was granted by Henry VIII to John Russell, 1st Earl of Bedford, beginning a connection with the Russell family which lasted until 1910, with the current primary school still called the “Duke of Bedford School”





Burghley House

1587

Information

Burghley House was built by William Cecil, later Lord Burghley, Elizabeth I's Secretary of State and closest adviser. It was originally designed in the shape of an 'E' to honour the queen, although she was never to visit. However, Queen Victoria was one of many high-profile visitors to the house and she planted a tree in the family's personal gardens at the back of the house. The gardens and park of Burghley House were laid out by Lancelot 'Capability' Brown in the 18th century, in line with many great houses of the time. William Cecil's descendants still live in the house and hold the Burghley Horse Trials every September, which have been running since 1961.  





William Lattimer: Anne Boleyn’s Biographer

1560

Information

Peterborough Cathedral has two well-known connections to Tudor Queens. The tombs of both Katherine of Aragon and Mary Queen of Scots could both be found in the Cathedral. Sadly, Mary Queen of Scots was moved down to Westminster, but Queen Katherine is still resting in peace. Most people think that is where the connections to Tudor royalty end, but that is not so. In 1560 William Lattimer or Latymer, became Dean of Peterborough Cathedral. He had been chaplain to Anne Boleyn during her reign and had smuggled French religious books into the country for her. Later, he became chaplain to Elizabeth I and wrote the Chronickille of Anne Bulleyne (Chronicle of Anne Boleyn) a biography of her life. He wrote the book for Elizabeth I, Anne Boleyn being her mother. Lattimer died in 1583 and was buried in Peterborough Cathedral.





Woodcroft Manor’s Royal Owner

1570

Information

Woodcroft Castle used to be known as Woodcroft Manor. It dates back to the twelfth century and appears frequently in court papers over the centuries. It is best well-known for the Civil War siege and death of Dr Michael Hudson, but it has a much better connection. On 6th October 1570 Woodcroft Mansion house was referred to as having been 'purchased of the late King Edward VI'. Many of the local manors have been owned by monarchs, often being given as presents. However the ownership of Woodcroft might suggest that it was once much more important than it is now. Indeed, in 1575 the manor was valued at £15, 6 shillings and 8 pence, which was more than Milton Manor.





Creation of the Feoffees in the City

1572

Information

Peterborough was, for many years, controlled by the abbey. However, the creation of municipal control started in 1572 when three local men, Robert Mallory, Thomas Robinson and Jeremy Green bought some of the church lands and offered them to the city. Income from the lands was used to help the poor and keep the roads, church and other buildings in good repair with the advice of the church wardens. 14 Feoffees were chosen to oversee these activities, working as councillors do in the 21st century.
The Men
The feoffees consisted of between 4 and 14 respectable, wealthy men. They worked together to keep the city in good order and to help those in dire straits. The account and minute books of the feoffees detail monies given to the poor. Money was provided for food or clothing and sheets to wrap up bodies if they died. Well-known feoffees included Humphrey Orme, Thomas Deacon and William Hake.
Feoffees Buildings
Evidence of the work of the Feoffees can be seen in the first almshouses, founded in 1722 in Cumbergate. They were also the driving force for the Guildhall or Buttercross in the marketplace, which was where they held their meetings. They originally met in the Moot Hall or Guildhall, which was on the corner of Cumbergate.





William Cecil Honoured

1576

Information

In 1576 Elizabeth I passed the title of Lord Paramount of the Liberty of Peterborough from the Bishop of Peterborough to William Cecil, Lord Burghley, whose descendants still hold this title.  





Burial of Mary, Queen of Scots

1587

Information

On the 1st of August 1587 Mary, Queen of Scots was buried in the Cathedral, 5 months after having been executed at nearby Fotheringhay Castle. The Dean, Richard Fletcher, officiated at both her execution and her funeral. On Sunday 30 July her body was carried to Peterborough by night and placed in the Bishop’s Palace. The Funeral was held on the 1 August, with the Cathedral being hung with black and the arms of Francis II and Darnley displayed. An effigy of Mary was carried along with her emblems of state. The cortege included the Countess of Bedford, the Bishop and Dean of Peterborough, the Bishop of Lincoln and one hundred poor widows clothed in black. The Bishop of Lincoln preached the sermon. The Dean presided over the burial, and the officers cast their broken staves on the coffin. A lavish funeral banquet was held in the Bishop’s Palace. The funeral cost £321, one third of which was for food and drink! Mary was re-interred on the orders of James I at Westminster Abbey in 1613, where she was buried next to Elizabeth I.





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Old Scarlett

1594

Information

‘Old Scarlett’ was Robert Scarlett, parish sexton and gravedigger throughout the Tudor period. He lived to the prodigious age of 98, dying in 1594, married twice and buried Katharine of Aragon and Mary, Queen of Scots inside the Cathedral. Amongst the hundreds of people that Scarlett buried during his lifetime was one ‘Edward the Foole’, a native of Crowland by birth and former court jester to King Henry VIII, laid to rest here in 1563. As was common practice at the time, and to allow for more burials in an already packed graveyard, the skeleton would have been exhumed some years later and the bones reburied in stacks. The image of an elderly gravedigger exhuming a royal jester’s skull might have stuck in the head of a Peterborough schoolboy, John Fletcher, the son of the then Cathedral Dean. Fletcher went on to become a noted Elizabethan playwright and worked with Shakespeare, even co-writing three plays with him, including the aforementioned ‘Henry VIII’. Is it possible that Fletcher may have suggested this scene to Shakespeare? Unfortunately ‘Hamlet’ was written between 1599 and 1601, and we have no evidence that the two men met until at least five years later, but it’s a tantalising thought nonetheless!





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Towering Over Wothorpe

1600

Information

Wothorpe Towers is a grade 1 listed building on the edge of the Soke of Peterborough. It was commissioned by Thomas Cecil of Burghley House in around 1600 as a lodge. Being so close to Burghley Park, it did not have its own deer park, as many lodges do. The land was originally in the ownership of Crowland Abbey and a small nunnery existed there. Following the reformation the land was gained by Richard Cecil, who was Groom of the Robes in Henry VIII's court and Thomas Cecil's grandfather. Sadly, the building is completely ruinous. The four towers thankfully remain and provide the building with its distinctive silhouette. They are four stories high, which allowed them to stand above the three-storey house. However the main living space has all been lost, with the exception of a central spine wall and a few additions. The ruins of Wothorpe Towers is in private ownership, but the gardens are being landscaped for visitors.





Notorious Highwayman Hanged

1605

Information

On this day the notorious highwayman Gamaliel Ratsey was hanged. He was born in Market Deeping, the son of wealthy Richard Ratsey. Unfortunately  as a young boy he went off the straight and narrow. In 1600 he enlisted in the army which accompanied Sir Charles Blount to Ireland but his time fighting did not cure him of his wicked ways. On his return to England in 1603 he robbed the landlady of an inn at Spalding. He was caught but escaped from prison, stealing a horse. He entered into partnership with two well known thieves named George Snell and Henry Shorthose and went on to commit many acts of highway robbery in Northamptonshire (which at the time included Peterborough). Ratsey’s exploits were notorious but were also characterised by humour, generosity to the poor and daring. On one occasion, near to Peterborough, he robbed two rich wool merchants then ‘knighted’ them as Sir Walter Woolsack and Sir Samuel Sheepskin. On another, whilst robbing a Cambridge scholar he extorted a learned oration from him. He usually wore a hideous mask leading him to be called ‘Gamaliel Hobgoblin’. Ben Jonson wrote in The Alchemist (Act I, Scene 1) of a “face cut….worse than Gamaliel Ratsey". Due to his generosity to the poor and the tales surrounding him, he became something of a folk hero and was the subject of several ballads. Sadly for Gamaliel, within two years his partners betrayed him to officers of the law and  on the 26th of March he was hanged in Bedford.





John Speed’s Map

1610

Information

The earliest known map of Peterborough is that created by John Speed. The main city centre streets can be recognised, as can several buildings including Peterborough Cathedral and St John's church. The cross keys symbol on the top left of the map is still visible around the city today on buildings and lamp posts.





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John Claypole Marries an Angell

1622

Information

John Claypole was born into the Claypole or Claypoole family of Northborough and Lolham. He was the fourth child born to Adam Claypole and Dorothy Wingfield. On 8th June 1622 John married Marie/Mary Angel at St. Thomas the Apostle Church in London. The Angels held the manor of Peakirk since at least the Fifteenth Century and were said to have provided a dowry of £1500. On account of their marriage John was given the manor of Northborough and also nearby Waldram Park by his father. John trained to be a lawyer and was likely to be an early friend of Oliver Cromwell. He was MP for Northamptonshire during the protectorate; his friend Cromwell had been MP for Huntingdon. He was given a knighthood and later baronet by Cromwell, although he is rarely known as Sir John Claypole. He worked with his son John to levy taxes in Northamptonshire and later supported the marriage of John to Oliver Cromwell's favourite daughter Elizabeth. Sir John died in 1664 in London, but his wife Mary was buried in Northborough when she died in 1661. References: https://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=mike83138&id=I94 Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 28 November 2018), memorial page for John Claypoole (13 Apr 1593–10 Apr 1664), Find A Grave Memorial no. 13526109, citing St. Andrew's Churchyard, Northborough, Peterborough Unitary Authority, Cambridgeshire, England ; Maintained by Wayne L. Osborne (contributor 46540493) . Photo credit: cc-by-sa/2.0 - © Paul Bryan - geograph.org.uk/p/4418377





Creation of the Earldom of Peterborough

1628

Information

John Mordaunt was the first Earl of Peterborough. His beginnings were not auspicious as his father was incarcerated in the Tower of London on suspicion of complicity in the Gunpowder Plot. He died in 1608 when John was 11. John was taken from his Catholic family and was made a ward of Protestant Bishop of London, George Abbot. Abbot believed the best way of dissuading him from following the same path as his father was by a good education; he was therefore educated at Oxford. After completing his education Mordaunt was invited to court, where he was a great success. Charles I created him Earl of Peterborough, by letters patent of 9 March 1628. During the English Civil War he deserted the king and fought on the side of Parliament. When he died on 8 June 1642 his son Henry, 2nd Earl of Peterborough defected back to the Royalists. John Mordaunt had the drama 'Tis Pity She's a Whore' dedicated to him by the playright John Foot. The earldom died out when the 5th Earl, Charles Henry Mordaunt died, childless, on 16th June 1814.





Pennies For a Puppet Show

1628

Information

The account books of the Peterborough Feoffees declare all of the money received and paid out by the administration. Most of the accounts refer to rent collection and payments to the ill and poverty-stricken. However, some of the details tell us about Stuart hospitality and even entertainment. 1628 a payment was made to 'Mr Joanes the player, for sheweinge of his puppites, and for sheweinge tricks in our common hall.' (1) Translated: 'Mr Jones the player, for showing of his puppets and for showing tricks in our common hall.' He was paid the princely sum of 12 pence, which was around half a days wages for a skilled labourer. The account had been included been October and December, so it was possibly a Christmas treat. Glove puppets and shadow puppets were very popular at the time. We can only guess as to the tricks played by Mr Joanes. Did he actually perform at Halloween and is the first refence to trick or treating in the city? A player was a term used in the past to mean actor. The 'common hall' referred to is very likely to be the Moot Hall, an arcaded wooden building which stood where Miss Pears Almshouses were built. The building was well-positioned on the corner of Cumbergate and Exchange Street and overlooking the market.
References
(1) W.T. Mellows (ed), Minutes and Accounts of the Feoffees and Governors of the City Lands, with Supplementary Documents, Northamptonshire Record Society, 1937, p48





Did the Feoffees Eat Horse Meat?

1630

Information

The Feoffees were a group of men who oversaw the administration of money collected and distributed to the deserving poor. They also ensured that the city was in good running order. They were selected from the upper echelons of Peterborough society and represented the city. This meant that they provided hospitality to other dignitaries and travelled to meet them. Their account books have examples of some of the expenses they occurred. In 1630 it appears that some of the men travelled to Stamford. References were made to food and drink consumed, including venison (deer meat). One curious sentence reads: For our horsmeate at Stamford and given to thosler - 6d Thosler would translate as 'the ostler' and seventeenth century ostlers cared for horses, but what have they paid him six pence for? Horse meat looks like the obvious answer, but even in the seventeenth century, eating horse meat was frowned upon because they were such valuable animals. Furthermore they would buy meat from a butcher, not an ostler. It is more likely to be a payment for food, drink and possibly stabling for their horses whilst they were in Stamford. However, it is possible that the Feoffees enjoyed a 'mane' course that was a little different.
Reference
W. T. Mellows, Minutes and Accounts of the Feoffees and Governors of the City Lands with Supplementary Documents, Northamptonshire Record Society, 1937, p67





Market for Thorney

1634

Information

In 1634 the right to hold a market on the Green at Thorney was granted to the Earls of Bedford, who held the lordship of Thorney from 1551.  The market continued until 1830, and then a fair was held on the Green into the 20th century.





Lolham Bridges Rebuilt

1642

Information

Lolham is a tiny hamlet close to Maxey and West Deeping. The few houses that exist sit close to King Street, a Roman road, which runs North to South through Lolham. King Street passes over Maxey Cut, The Welland and a few ditches at this point, which has meant several bridges were needed. Lolham Bridges are grade II* listed structures. There are five bridges in the listing, the earliest of which has the date 1642 on the Western side. An inscription reads: 'These several bridges were built at the general charge of the whole County of Northampton in the year 1652.' (1) However, the inscription might be slightly misleading because a record in Northamptonshire Archives references 'a trial about the responsibility to repair Lolham Bridge in 16668/9' (2). They were later restored in 1712 and 1916 (1), suggesting either flood damage or poor workmanship. Given that people would have been using that route for nearly 2,000 years it is not surprising that there are earlier references to bridges at Lolham. Indeed, one of the earliest references is in 1408 in a writ in which 'a meadow to the west of Lolham Bridge' was valued at 11s 8d (11 shillings and 8 pence) (3). Lolham Bridges are accessible from the north on a one-way road. However, there are no parking places close-by, or footpaths, so accessibility is challenging.
References
(1) Listing number 1365654, https://historicengland.org.uk/listing/the-list/list-entry/1365654 (2) Northamptonshire Records Office QSR 1/52 http://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/details/r/378e675e-7c49-4751-8f3c-3cf992aba85b (3) J. L. Kirby, 'Inquisitions Post Mortem, Henry IV, Entries 603-654', in Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem: Volume 19, Henry IV (London, 1992), pp. 215-234. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/inquis-post-mortem/vol19/pp215-234 [accessed 26 November 2018]. Photo credit: Stone bridge at Lolham, near Bourne, Lincolnshire cc-by-sa/2.0 - © Rex Needle - geograph.org.uk/p/4436905





Cromwell Comes to Stay

1643

Information

The Cathedral was ravaged during the English Civil War when Peterborough, a town with Royalist sympathies, was taken by Colonel Oliver Cromwell. Nearly all the stained glass windows were destroyed and the altar and reredos, cloisters and Lady Chapel were demolished. Much of the Cathedral’s library was destroyed by Cromwell’s troops, by being burnt in the cloisters. The Royalist newsbook ‘Mercurius Aulicus’ describes it thus: ‘It was advertised this day from Peterburgh, that Colonell Cromwell had bestowed a visit on that little City, and put them to the charge of his entertainment, plundering a great part thereof to discharge the reckoning, and further that in pursuance of the thorow Reformation, he did most miserably deface the Cathedrall Church, breake downe the Organs, and destroy the glasse windowes, committing many other outrages on the house of God which were not acted by the Gothes in the sack of Rome, and are most commonly forborn by the Turks when they possesse themselves by force of a Christian city.’  Cromwell spent a month in Peterborough, lodging in the Vineyard at the back of the Cathedral Precincts, allegedly with concussion from having hit his head whilst galloping under a low gateway. Recent archaeological evidence has been found of Cromwell’s troops being camped in the Cathedral grounds.





Resources

A Royal ‘Resident’

1646

Information

King Charles I was briefly held prisoner in the city. He was on his way to London to be imprisoned, prior to his execution. He was held in the Abbot’s Gaol, which is next to the west gate of the cathedral. There were many local supporters who included the Orme family.
Evidence of the Gaol
One of the old wooden doors of the gaol can be seen in Peterborough Museum. The goal is currently used as a retail space.  





Resources

The Siege of Woodcroft Castle

1648

Information

Woodcroft Castle near Helpston was built in the 13th century as a fortified manor house with a tower and moat. During the English Civil was it was occupied by Dr Michael Hudson. He was a priest who had been the chaplain to King Charles I and was a staunch Royalist. In 1648 Hudson garrisoned Woodcroft Castle with Cavalier soldiers and attempted to get Stamford to rise up against Parliament but he failed. He was chased back to Woodcroft Castle by a troop of Roundheads. They attempted to storm the castle but they were driven off with the loss of several men. The besiegers were then reinforced by a full regiment of Roundheads who were determined to win the castle. Hudson and his men resisted bravely but it was stormed after the gates were blown in using gunpowder. The defenders retreated to the tower and Dr Hudson ended up dangling from the ramparts. When the Roundheads found him dangling they cut off his hands sending him plunging into the moat below. He was then dragged from the moat and disembowelled and his tongue cut out. His body was buried at Denton, Northamptonshire. As a grisly postscript his tongue was paraded around local towns as a trophy and a warning not to oppose Parliament!





Thorpe Hall Built

1653

Information

Thorpe Hall is a Grade 1 listed building built during the Cromwellian era between 1653 and 1658, at a time when very few stately homes were built. Oliver St. John (pronounced Sinjun) commissioned the house to be built by Peter Mills, who later helped to rebuild London after the Great Fire in 1666. Oliver St. John was a judge, politician and Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas to Oliver Cromwell, whom he was related to through his second wife Elizabeth Cromwell, said to be his favourite cousin. This connection might have been advantageous in securing the land to build Thorpe Hall on. The house was built in the shape of a cube, set amongst 6 acres of walled garden. Much of the interior of the house has changed over the years, but the wooden staircase is dated from the original house build and large fireplaces on the ground floor are worthy of merit. The house has changed hands many times over the years and was at one point a boys school and a maternity home. It was bought by Sue Ryder in 1986 to be used as a hospice, with an extension added in 2015 within the old walled orchard.





Resources

Quaker Leader Visits Peterborough

1660

Information

George Whitehead visited Peterborough in this year. Travelling with other Friends (which is how Quakers addressed each other then and many still today) through neighbouring counties he arrived in the city. He wrote, “I was much pressed in Spirit to endeavour for a Meeting in the City of Peterborow, tho’ I heard of no Friends there to receive me.” A Meeting for Worship was arranged and was well attended by Friends from neighbouring areas and by local townspeople and, despite considerable abuse and violence from a mob, who considered Friends heretics, the gathering ended quietly in the afternoon, and Friends “…parted peaceably without molestation or disturbance.” His visit did not result in establishing a Quaker Meeting in Peterborough. George Whitehead (1636–1723) was a leading early Quaker preacher, author and lobbyist remembered for his advocacy of religious freedom before three kings of England. His lobbying in defence of the right to practice the Quaker religion was influential on the Act of Uniformity, the Bill of Rights of 1689 and the Royal Declaration of Indulgence. He suffered imprisonment and abuse for his beliefs.





The New Lead-Free Cathedral Font Christened

1660

Information

According to the Cathedral registers, the font in the church was pulled down by Cromwellian troops. The registers state that it was 'puld downe, and the lead taken out of it by Cromwell's Souldyers.' A new font was ready for its first christening by November 1660. The first child to use the font was a girl named Hellen Austin on 7th November 1660. An elaborately carved font dating from the 13th century was rediscovered in 1820 in a canon's garden. It was unclear how long it had been in the garden and could possibly have been the one pulled down by Cromwell's soldiers. The lead in reference might have been an inner lining to the font. Knowing what we now do about lead, Hellen was lucky to to be the first child not to have a lead-lined christening.
Reference:
W.D. Sweeting, Historical and Architectural Notes on the Parish Churches in and around Peterborough, (Whittaker and Co, 1868) https://archive.org/stream/historicalarchit00swee/historicalarchit00swee_djvu.txt
Photo credit:
cc-by-sa/2.0 - © J.Hannan-Briggs - geograph.org.uk/p/3661559





Death of a Cromwell

1665

Information

Elizabeth Cromwell née Bourchier was born in Felsted, Essex in 1598 to a wealthy family. She is known as being the wife of Oliver Cromwell and Protectoress of England from 1653 to 1658. After her husband's death in 1658, and the restoration of the monarchy, Elizabeth was mocked and afraid for her life. She wished to escape London and had to petition Charles II to allow her to do so. Elizabeth moved to Northborough Manor to live with her daughter Elizabeth, who had married into the Claypole family. Elizabeth Cromwell died in 1665 and was buried in St Andrews Church, Northborough. The parish records state 'Elizabeth, the relict of Oliver Cromwell, sometime Protector of England, was buried November 19th 1665.' Some items from her life and more information about her can be found in her homes in Ely and Huntingdon, which are now both museums. Reference: Cooke, G.A., A Topographical and Statistical Description of the County of Northampton, Sherwood Jones and Co., via https://archive.org/stream/topographicalsta00cook/topographicalsta00cook_djvu.txt [Accessed 26 May 2018]





Farmhouse to Beerhouse

1665

Information

The Bluebell Inn in Dogsthorpe is a grade II listed building on Welland Road. The reason for the listing is because of the dating stone which reads 'ITH  1665'. Originally built as a farmhouse, it became a public house early in the 19th century and has continued to be so for the last 200 years. The building has been extended and improved over the years and during one of the improvements a wooden panel was found with initials and the date 1594, suggesting that the building is older than the date stone, or that the panel had been salvaged from elsewhere and reused in the building. Picture credit: The Blue Bell, Dogsthorpe cc-by-sa/2.0 - © Paul Bryan - geograph.org.uk/p/4306835





Borough Fen Duck Decoy First Mentioned

1670

Information

The Duck Decoy at Borough Fen has been in use for centuries, although the first reference to it was in 1670. It was originally built to facilitate the capture of ducks which were destined for dinner tables, but now it is used to help capture and ring ducks for conservation purposes. The decoy appears quite remarkable on maps: it is made of a central pond with 8 curved, narrowing arms radiating from the centre. The arms or 'pipes' were tapered and curved so that ducks could be encouraged down them and easily captured. The last known use of the decoy for its original use was in 1951.





The Guildhall Completed

1671

Information

The Guildhall, also known as the Buttercross or Chamber Over the Cross, was built to commemorate the restoration of the monarchy and was paid for by public subscription. It was built by local builder John Lovin, who was partly paid by the minting of an octagonal Peterborough halfpenny. Many local influential families subscribed to the building of the Guildhall and several coats of arms can be seen on the side of the building. Peterborough Museum houses a turtle shell decorated with the arms of Sir Humphrey Orme, MP and owner of Neville Place (the site of the present museum). It is said that Sir Humphrey supplied the turtle for soup eaten to celebrate its completion.





Resources

John Forster, Graffiti Artist

1687

Information

The graffiti scratched onto the walls of the eastern end of the cathedral are numerous. They vary in size and form, but almost all contain initials or names of the artist. One of the best names to search for is John Forster, who rather enjoyed scratching his name in the walls. His letter form is rather impressive and he has had enough time to fully form his name and date it. We can assume that he enjoyed making his mark because his name appears twice on the wall of the New Building.
Where to find it
His first signature (should that be graffiti tag?!) was scratched at the north east end of the cathedral. It is dated 1687. Further east on the same wall you can find his second attempt from 1688. Rather pleasingly it is easy to see an improvement in his letter formation and a more confident signature. He used an I in place of J for John because the letter J hadn't come into use yet.
Who was John Forster?
John Forster was likely to have been a pupil of King's School, which was based in the cathedral grounds at that time. How he managed to find the time to mark his name in such detail, we will never know. We can only guess what his punishment would have been if he was caught doing it.





Birth of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu

1689

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Lady Mary Wortley Montagu was born in May 1689, the eldest child of the future 1st Duke of Kingston-upon-Hull. She married, against her father's wishes, Sir Edward Wortley Montagu, who was later twice MP for Peterborough. Lady Mary is today chiefly remembered for her letters, particularly her letters from travels to the Ottoman Empire, when her husband was the British ambassador to Turkey. These witty and well observed missives, as well as her other writings demonstrate that she deserves to be better known as a great writer. Aside from her writing, Lady Mary is also known for introducing and championing smallpox inoculation (variolation) to Britain, which she had seen demonstrated during her time in Turkey. She had a great interest in the disease as she herself had suffered from it and was left badly scarred, and her brother died from it. Innoculation remained controversial and in later years was replaced by Edward Jenner's much safer technique of vaccination using cowpox rather than smallpox itself. Lady Mary died on 21st August 1762 of breast cancer having recently returned from Venice to London. Edward Wortley Montague had died the year before. Their names are remembered in the Wortley Arms, originally the Wortley Almshouse.





Celia Fiennes Passed Through the City

1698

Information

Celia Fiennes was a prolific traveller who documented her journey around Britain on a horse. At a time when only the wealthy could contemplate travelling and when the majority of literature is written by men, Celia Fiennes' work is refreshing. Celia passed through Peterborough and much admired the cathedral and town. She wrote that the city 'looks very well and handsomely built, but mostly timber worke: you pass over a Long stone bridg. The streetes are very clean and neate, well pitch'd and broad as one shall see any where, there is a very spacious market place, a good Cross and a town Hall on the top (the Guildhall or Buttercross).' She continued her prose, describing the cathedral in great detail before her journey continued on to Wansford. Worth noting that she describes Peterborough as being in Lincolnshire and surrounded by the Lin (possibly mishearing Nin), suggesting that she hadn't taken a very good look at the city or spoken to the locals! All quotes from: Celia Fiennes, Through England on a Side Saddle, Folkcustoms.co.uk, 2016, pp130-131





When Cow Dung Fuelled the City

1698

Information

When Celia Fiennes travelled through the city in 1698 she noted that local people near 'Mrs St John's house' (Thorpe Hall) were using cow dung for fuel: 'as I passed the Road I saw upon the walls of the ordinary peoples houses and walls of their out houses, the Cow dung plaister'd up to drie in Cakes which they use for fireing, its a very offensive fewell (fuel), but the Country people use Little Else in these parts.'  Cow dung was a free and effective fuel for the people of rural Peterborough, but the smell would not have been popular! There had been a shortage of wood since the 1550's, so burning cow dung was a sensible alternative for the very poor who were unable to afford expensive wood supplies, or cut down their own wood. Other alternatives for fuel would have included peat, charcoal and coal, none of which were particularly pleasant on the eyes or lungs. Animal dung has been used as a fuel since prehistoric times, with evidence from the Ancient Egyptians using dung as fuel and even references to it being used in the bible. Many areas of the world use animal dung as fuel.





Birth of Thomas Worlidge

1700

Information

Thomas Worlidge was born in Peterborough in 1700 to Roman Catholic parents. He studied art in London as a pupil of the Genoese refugee Alessandro Maria Grimaldi. He went on to study with engraver Louis-Philippe Boitard. About 1740 Worlidge settled in London in the neighbourhood of Covent Garden, where he remained for the rest of his life. He spent the winter social season in Bath, painting the portraits of society members. His most popular work consisted of heads in pencil, for which he charged two guineas. The dominant force in his work was Rembrandt. His imitations of Rembrandt's work in etching and dry point sold well and remained popular after his death. He married three times and is said to have had thirty-two children by his three marriages. Sadly, only Thomas, a son by his third wife, survived him. He died on 23 September 1766, and was buried in Hammersmith church. Image from the National Portrait Gallery collection.





Bagley’s Bells of Castor

1700

Information

Castor Church sits in a commanding position over the Nene Valley. It has a rich history with enviable Roman, Saxon and Norman construction within the building. Evidence of the Roman Praetorium and Saint Kyneburgha's church are easy to identify. What is not as easy to see, but easy to hear, are the church bells. There are eight in total, six of which date from 1700. They were inscribed by the name of the bell founder Henry Bagley who lived in Ecton, Northamptonshire. Two bells declare 'Henry Bagley of Ecton Made Me 1700' and two repeat the statement in Latin. The other two are a mixture of Latin and English, the Tenor bell declaring 'I to the church the living call and to the grave do summon all.' Henry Bagley was a master bell founder and the second Henry Bagley. He also holds the honour of being the tutor of Henry Penn, Peterborough's well-known bell founder. The two newest bells were installed as millennium commemorations. One is inscribed 'Untouched I am a silent thing, but strike me and I sweetly sing.' We can imagine that Henry Bagley would be happy with that sentiment.





A Very Special Wedding

1711

Information

The local church registers record all of the special births, marriages and deaths in Peterborough. One marriage stands out more than the others. On 7th July 1711 the cathedral register states: 'John Sherwood a negro 3 foot high and Margaret Steward 2 foot and a half marry'd.' Not only is this likely to be Peterborough's first recorded mixed-race wedding, but possibly the first marriage of two little people. No other records have been discovered relating to John and Margaret, so it is possible that they did not remain in the city. It is possible that John was, or had been, a slave, slavery not being abolished until 1833. Let's hope the marriage was a long and happy one.