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Peterborough Under Water

165 million years ago


Peterborough was much closer to the equator in Jurassic times and a shallow sea covered the area. Together with warmer global temperatures, the local climate would have felt as balmy as the Bahamas. In the 145 million years since the Jurassic Period, the continents have moved hundreds of miles. Ever since the Earth formed, the rocky plates on its surface have moved around very slowly, powered by the heat in the planet’s core. Today, the continents continue to move as they collide and separate very slowly. Peterborough’s Jurassic sea was packed with creatures of all sizes, from microsopic to monstrous. The small fish, ammonites and belemnites feasted on shoals of plankton. They in turn became food for larger creatures. At the top of the food chain were the large ichthyosaurs, plesiosaurs, pliosaurs and crocodiles. The shallow sea supported a huge variety of fish of all sizes and shapes, adapted for life at different depths in the water. Near the surface, shoals of fast-swimming Caturus hunted smaller fish. The vast Leedsichthys – the biggest fish ever known – cruised harmelssly among them, gulping in water and filtering plankton to eat. When these creatures died they sank to the bottom of the sea where some of them became fossilised. Peterborough Museum houses a magnificent collect of these fossils.

Britain Abandoned

180,000 to 70,000 years ago


Before 11,700 years ago Britain was subject to violent swings in climate and environment and occupation was patchy. Between 180,000 and 70,000 years ago there were no humans of any species living here, Britain was abandoned.

The Ice Ages

2.5 million years ago - 9 600 BC


The Ice Ages began in Britain just over two and a half million years ago. They were characterised by periods of extremely cold weather, when glaciers formed and when most of the land that was later to form the British Isles was uninhabitable. The earliest humans arrived in Britain around a million years ago, but would only have been able to live here, sometimes in sheltering caves, in the warmer spells, known as interglacials, between the glaciers. The last interglacial ended about 72,000 years ago and the human who lived here were close relatives known as Neanderthals. Modern humans (Homo sapiens) arrived in Britain as the climate began slowly to warm up towards the end of the last glacial period, from about 40,000 years ago.