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Alfred Caleb Taylor and the First X Ray Machine...

1896

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Alfred Caleb Taylor was born in Newark-on-Trent, Nottinghamshire in 1861 and came to Peterborough aged ten. He worked at the Peterborough Infirmary on Priestgate from 1880 as a dispenser. He also served as Secretary of the Infirmary from 1889 until his retirement in 1926. Mr Taylor had a keen interest in photography and chaired the Peterborough Photographic Society. This carried over into an interest in X-rays being an early advocate of X-ray technology. In 1896 he designed and built his own equipment under the stairs in the infirmary. This device, the first X-ray machine in the United Kingdom outside London, was powered by accumulators. They were recharged at a local flour mill as there was no public electricity supply at that time. When an electricity supply was available in Peterborough, Mr Harry Cox, from London, was consulted regarding a larger installation. Many people made donations towards the new x-ray apparatus; Mr Andrew Carnegie, Peterborough’s first Freeman kindly donated £125 towards the installation.  As with the photography of the time the images produced by the X-ray machines were positives rather than negatives.

Radiography

As the science of radiography was so new, the danger of exposure to X-rays was unknown.  Taylor worked with the x-rays so often, that it badly affected his health.  He contracted radiation poisoning resulting in the loss of four fingers, three on the left hand and one on the right. Despite this he never expressed any regrets and said, “I have only done my duty, and if I have sacrificed bits of my fingers so that I am not able to tie up my shoes laces, I feel I have been compensated, for I have loved the x-ray work and its excitements. For all the trouble I had at the beginning I have been more than compensated by your appreciation, and although I have lost bits of fingers, I would still do the same if I had my life to come again.” Alfred Caleb Taylor died on the 6th of July 1927, a pioneer and martyr.  





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Victorian Operating Theatre

1897

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The first purpose-built operating theatre was opened in 1897. It was built as an extension to Peterborough Infirmary. It provided state of the art care for the people of Peterborough, incorporating the most up to date medical ideas. These ideas included the use of anaesthesia and keeping the theatre meticulously clean.  So many things we take for granted in the twenty-first century were new ideas to the Victorians. However, these new ideas still save lives now. It was originally lit by gas lighting and had a glass roof to maximise light. The funds to build the operating theatre came from two Peterborough women who chose to remain anonymous, they went by the name 'Heliotrope'. The Victorian operating theatre is open to visitors to Peterborough Museum. It still contains many of its original features including the glazed white tiles. Replicas of the tools used in the past are also on show. A small case details some of the people who worked in the operating theatre.





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Peterborough Under Water

165 million years ago

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Peterborough was much closer to the equator in Jurassic times and a shallow sea covered the area. Together with warmer global temperatures, the local climate would have felt as balmy as the Bahamas. In the 145 million years since the Jurassic Period, the continents have moved hundreds of miles. Ever since the Earth formed, the rocky plates on its surface have moved around very slowly, powered by the heat in the planet’s core. Today, the continents continue to move as they collide and separate very slowly. Peterborough’s Jurassic sea was packed with creatures of all sizes, from microsopic to monstrous. The small fish, ammonites and belemnites feasted on shoals of plankton. They in turn became food for larger creatures. At the top of the food chain were the large ichthyosaurs, plesiosaurs, pliosaurs and crocodiles. The shallow sea supported a huge variety of fish of all sizes and shapes, adapted for life at different depths in the water. Near the surface, shoals of fast-swimming Caturus hunted smaller fish. The vast Leedsichthys – the biggest fish ever known – cruised harmelssly among them, gulping in water and filtering plankton to eat. When these creatures died they sank to the bottom of the sea where some of them became fossilised. Peterborough Museum houses a magnificent collect of these fossils.





Trust in the Park

1988

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Ten years after the park’s opening, Nene Park Trust was formed to take stewardship of the park itself. The Trust remains a charitable company, using its income to manage and develop the park through nature conservation, education and events and managing its facilities.





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The Big Bang

13.7 billion years ago

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The Big Bang Theory is the scientific model for the origin of the universe, it was born out of the observation that other galaxies are moving away from our own at great speed as if propelled by an explosive force. The theory states that about 13.7 billion years ago all the matter and radiation of the observable universe was compressed into a hot, dense mass just a few millimetres across. This state is theorised to have existed for just a fraction of the first second of time after which a massive blast allowed all the universe's matter and energy to escape. In the instant (a trillion trillionth of a second) after the Big Bang the universe expanded from a few millimetres to something astronomically vast and has continued to expand , though more slowly in the billions of years since. Cosmic microwave background radiation received from all parts of the universe is thought to be the heat left over from the original explosion.        





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Last Reversal of the Earth’s Magnetic Poles

780,000 years ago

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The Earth's magnetic poles are not fixed over geological time. As the Earth spins on its axis its molten iron core naturally produces an electrical and magnetic field which gives the planet its magnetic north and south poles. The earth's magnetic field continuously and irregularly varies, and from time to time it flips completely, causing the magnetic north and south poles to trade places, a phenomenon known as palaeomagnetic reversal. Palaeomagnetic reversals have occurred many times over the Earth's history, the last one occurring about 780,000 years ago.





First Ancient Humans to Reach Britain

800,000 Years Ago

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Evidence for human habitation in Britain dating back to 800 000 years ago has been found in East Anglia, in the form of simple stone tools and in Happisburgh, Norfolk, fossilised footprints. These humans were probably Homo antecessor (pioneer man), likely to be a common ancestor of both Homo neanderthalensis (neanderthals) and Homo sapiens (modern humans). Britain was then a peninsula of mainland Europe.





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Britain Abandoned

180,000 to 70,000 years ago

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Before 11,700 years ago Britain was subject to violent swings in climate and environment and occupation was patchy. Between 180,000 and 70,000 years ago there were no humans of any species living here, Britain was abandoned.





The Creation of Stars and Galaxies

13.7- 4.6 billion years ago

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In the first moments after the Big Bang, the universe was extremely hot and dense. As it cooled, conditions gave rise to the building blocks of matter, quarks and electrons. A few millionths of a second later, quarks aggregated to produce protons and neutrons and in minutes these protons and neutrons combined into nuclei. As the universe continued to expand and cool, things slowed down and it took 380,000 years before atoms were formed when electrons were trapped in orbits around nuclei. These atoms were mainly helium and hydrogen, still the most common elements in existence. In the following  half-billion years, clumps of gas collapsed enough to form the first stars and galaxies. In the hearts of these stars elements like iron, carbon and oxygen are produced which are then seeded throughout the universe following explosions called supernovae. A little after 9 billion years after the Big Bang, our solar system was born. We are currently finding out more about the invisible as well as the visible universe, through agencies like NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) and CERN ( European Organisation for Nuclear Research) who investigate phenomena like dark matter which does not emit any electromagnetic radiation and dark energy, comprising a huge part of the universe that we can only detect through its effects.





The Formation of the Solar System

4.6 Billion years ago

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Our Solar System is part of the Milky Way Galaxy that contains billions of other stars. Our Sun is thought to be a third generation star created from the materials from two previous generations of stars which had reached the end of their lives and exploded sending their material out into the universe. About 4.6 billion years ago the solar system began to form within a molecular cloud, a concentration of interstellar dust and hydrogen gas. The cloud contracted under its own gravity and our proto-Sun formed in the hot dense centre. The remainder of the cloud formed a swirling disk called the solar nebula. It was within this solar nebula that beginnings of planets were born as dust and ice particles came together in a process called “accretion”. These planetesimals continued to grow, their gravity coming to influence each other’s motions causing more collisions and accretion and so creating proto-planets. This continued until there were only four large bodies in the inner solar system, Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. In the cold outer nebula much larger proto-planets formed, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Our Moon was formed shortly after the formation of the Earth; the Earth was hit by an object half its size which disintegrated along with the outer layers of the Earth. The debris from this formed a ring around the Earth which accreted, clumped together, to form the Moon.





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